This report is an updated and revised English version of the report “Klima og menneskerettigheter”, published by the Norwegian Institution for Human Rights (NIM) in October 2020. Chapter 4 on Section 112 of the Norwegian Constitution has been revised to reflect the interpretations adopted by the Norwegian Supreme Court in a plenary judgement of December 22nd, 2020. This chapter, along with other parts of the report pertaining to national law, have been significantly shortened for the benefit of international readers. Chapter 5 on the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) has been updated, to reflect new developments in national jurisprudence across Europe and recently communicated climate cases before the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Chapters 8 and 9 on climate displaced persons and international climate cases have also been updated, to account for new developments in the area.


European Convention on Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Carbon dioxide